Reflex Integration and Vision

Excerpts from Sally Goddard’s book Reflexes, Learning and Behavior: A Window into the Child’s Mind (Fern Ridge
Press, 2005), 111, 128


A vision therapist working in the Netherlands
found that he achieved the greatest success
if he delayed vision therapy until a child had
at least six months on a reflex stimulation/
inhibition program. In many cases, vision
therapy was not required after the
reflexes had matured. In those cases
where residual oculo-motor problems
remained, the time needed on a vision
therapy program was halved (Ten Hoopen

In 2001, Bein-Wierzbinski, a former post-
graduate student at Institute for Neuro-
Physiological Psychology, presented the

findings of a study of 52 elementary
school children in Germany. She found
improvement in oculor-motor
functioning and reading skills as
persistent reflexes were corrected.
Oculo-motor defects continued to
persist in the control group, who had
not received specific motor-training

Excerpt from Sergio Ramirez Gonzalez, MS, Kenneth J. Ciuffreda, OD, PhD, Luis Castillo Hernandez, PhD, and
Jaimes Bernal Escalante, MS’s “The Correlation between Primitive Reflexes and Saccadic Eye Movements in 5th
Grade Children with Teacher-Reported Reading Problems” (Optometry and Vision Development, 39(3): 140–45,

Background: The objective of the present
study was to determine the association, if
any, between any remaining primitive
reflexes and saccadic eye movements in 5th
grade children with teacher-reported reading
Results: The results suggested that
selected residual primitive reflexes were
correlated with reduced saccadic
accuracy and impaired reading ability.

In addition, the laboratory-based saccadic
testing provided an objective and
confirmatory correlate to the presence of
abnormal primitive reflexes.
Conclusions: There were significant
associations between the saccadic eye
movement parameters and the primitive
reflexes, especially as related to SR and
TLR, in those children with reading

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